“The rise and fall of Marxism is linked with the emergence of the socialist state. It had emerged with the assumption that it would protect the socialist revolution which will ultimately lead to a classless and stateless golden social order. But the directors of the October Revolution suffered from what we call the Platonic Illusion from which all ideologies, whether religious or secular have suffered, namely to create a protective state to guard what they hold as true.
Plato had thought as he watched his dear Socrates being put to death, by the City of Athens, that by creating a Republic he would protect the free quest for truth, a state governed by the wise and the enlightened, under which no other Socrates would be silenced. Plato failed to notice that by the manner Socrates accepted his death he had showed how he regarded himself and his soul as indestructible, that he did not require any other means than of himself and his awareness in order to protect what he stood for.
Marxism in its original vision did not need to externally direct the dialectical movement of history once the transformed state of consciousness of the individual is reached; it is that critical point whereby the individual becomes both the means and the end of revolution.
Marxism reached then its ultimate self-contradiction when the socialist state made its own nuclear weapon. No difference is left between a socialist and capitalistic state. The weapon is indifferent to all ideological differences. For the weapon the individual does not exist. For the weapon only masses of people exist to be wiped out at any time of day and night. The deadly absurd brink has been reached.”
by Professor Hasan Askari (*see also “Towards a Spiritual Humanism : A Muslim – Humanist Dialogue” by Hasan Askari and Jon Avery.
“Spiritual Humanism is convinced that there are resources within the human soul to repel the evil with the good, that truth and virtue have their own power to defend themselves. We should have long given up the very idea of self-defence by physical means. While other animals were growing weapons of self-defence upon their bodies, man was shedding off all such weapons. See how defenceless our physical body looks compared with other animals as though there are powers, yet unknown, deeply concealed in our soul. How weak does man appear though he is armed with nuclear weapons, and how powerful a Buddha or a Jesus looks with his bare hands having made the choice of walking on the path of Peace.
It appears as though we have accustomed our soul to combat violence with violence, destruction with destruction, physical threat with physical deterrent. We seem to have forgotten how powerful the choice of the peaceful deterrent could be. Spiritual Humanism therefore calls for every party to act first without waiting for the other to act when it is convinced of the principle that the evil be repelled by the good. If disarmament is the good, let one disarm without waiting for any other to disarm first.
Responding to violence by suspending human rights is to act with violence to one’s own moral and social fabric. Life is honoured when the individual is honoured. The individual is honoured when the individual rights are honoured. Only by honouring the life and the rights of the other, our life and rights are preserved.”
by Professor Hasan Askari (*see also “Towards a Spiritual Humanism: A Muslim – Humanist Dialogue” by Hasan Askari & Jon Avery)
“Spiritual Humanism is an alternative ideology to secular humanism and racial and religious separatism. We require at the present hour of history a spiritually regenerative ideology with a universal perspective.
By the criteria of universality we touch that purity of the human essence which has been at the centre of each religious tradition but has been obscured by its dogmatic and collectivistic expressions. By the criteria of universality and spirituality we touch that nobility of the human essence which has been the aspiration of secular humanism but has been crippled by its stubborn rejection of the metaphysical nature of that essence. We require such a school of thought as can overcome these limitations and pave the way for an ideological stand which has universal reference, and which can inspire universal hope and confidence. Spiritual Humanism is such a school of thought with the potentiality to transform the world.
Spiritual Humanism takes a clear stand against all forms of violence, against the entire cult of militarism and terrorism of states and groups. It can be replaced by the trust in the power of the peaceful means to resolve conflicts, that truth and justice has their own might to defend themselves. Spiritual Humanism will uphold in all circumstances the life and dignity of each individual as more preceious than any ideology or cause.
Spiritual Humanism is a comprehensive ideological option, a philosophy and a policy of liberation from all that enslaves and cripples humanity.”
by Professor Hasan Askari (1932-2008)
*see also “Towards a Spiritual Humanism : A Muslim -Humanist Dialogue” by Hasan Askari & Jon Avery
SpiritualHuman blog is dedicated to the work and vision of Professor Syed Hasan Askari (1932-2008) who figures as one of the eight important Muslim thinkers in Kenneth Cragg’s The Pen and the Faith and is also acknowledged in the West as an uncompromising advocate for inter-religious spirituality. The blog was created and is maintained by Musa Askari. Professor Askari has lectured and taught at several universities in India, Lebanon, Germany, Holland, Britain and the United States. Hasan Askari has been one of the Muslim respondents to the Christian initiative to Dialogue and figures extensively in the study, “Striving Together in the Way of God: Muslim Participation in Christian-Muslim Dialogue”(1987) by Dr Charles A Kimball.
Hasan Askari’s works include The Experience of Religious Diversity – co edited with Professor John Hick, Spiritual Quest – An Inter Religious Dimension and Towards a Spiritual Humanism – A Muslim Humanist Dialogue (with Jon Avery), Alone to Alone : From Awareness to Vision, Seers & Sages (co-edited with David Bowen), Solomons Ring : The Life and Teachings of a Sufi Master, Inter-Religion to name but a few.
In the foreword to Spiritual Quest, Professor Jane I Smith (Harvard Divinity School – Senior Lecturer in Divinity and Associate Dean for Faculty and Academic Affairs) writes, “This is the deeper dimension of interfaith conversation to which Hasan Askari call(s) persons of religious sensitivity, a dialogue that leads not simply to a new epistemology but to what he would call a new ontology. A long time partner in dialogue sessions sponsored through the World Council of Churches and other agencies, Askari has been a courageous and sometimes lone voice urging that conversation move to levels at which this kind of transformation indeed can take place. Those who have known him through the years find it no surprise that the noted interpreter of Islam, Anglican Bishop Kenneth Cragg, has acknowledged Hasan Askari as one of the eight prominent Muslim thinkers of this century(20th) in The Pen and the Faith. A philosopher, a mystic, an historian and a social scientist, Askari pleads with religious persons everywhere to transcend the limitations we have placed on ourselves and to move together to new levels of understanding.”
In the aforementioned study Dr. Charles Kimball writes, “Hasan Askari is among the most active and visible Muslims engaged in interreligious dialogue. Since 1970, he has participated in numerous international and local dialogue meetings and lectured widely on various dimensions of what he terms “inter-religion”…His prominence in the field of Christian-Muslim encounter is noted by Kenneth Cragg, a pioneer and acknowledged authority in the area of Christian-Muslim relations:
“Few thinkers in contemporary Islam have so tellingly explored the issues of inter-religion or undertaken them as strong vocation. Hasan Askari holds a unique position in the search for unity of heart within the discrepancies, real or unreal, of religions in society.”
Dr Kimball continues, “Hasan Askari is a provocative and engaging person, a thoughtful scholar and sometimes an enigmatic mystic.”
Professor Askari has taught at several universities including, Osmania, Aligarth, Beirut, Amsterdam, Birmingham (UK) and has been a visiting professor at the universities of Antwerp and Denver. He was also the Louise Iliff Visiting Professor at the Iliff School of Theology in Denver.
Professor Askari’s international reputation rests on his vast experience as both consultant and participant at several international conferences and seminars on inter-religious dialogue: Ajoultoon 1970, Broummana 1972, Colombo 1974, London 1974, Bellagio 1976, Freiburg 1976, Beirut 1977, Hamburg 1982, Hanover 1984, The Hague 1985, Hartford 1982, Philadelphia 1986, Amsterdam 1990.
Professor Askari has been the first Muslim to address the Conference of European Bishops (Vienna 1985), and the International Council of Jews and Christians (Salamanca 1986). He has also given special lectures at several universities – Tehran, Frankfurt, Heidelberg, Nainz, Gottinghem, Rome, Utrecht, Leiden, Aberdeen, Oxford, Cambridge, Harvard, Uppsala and Stockholm.
Committed to co-presence and dialogue between diverse forms of spirituality, Professor Askari emphasises the urgent need to revive the discourse on soul and promoting Spiritual Humanism as an alternative ideology.
Books by Prof Syed Hasan Askari:
Selections from The Orations of Imam Ali ibn Talib, Hyderabad, 1965 (Urdu).
Foundations of Applied Sociology, Allahbad, 1968.
Inter-Religion, Aligarh, 1977.
Society and State in Islam, Delhi, 1977.
Reflections of the Awakened, Cambridge 1984.
The Experience of Religious Diversity (Co-Editor with John Hick), 1984.
Spiritual Quest: An Inter-Religious Dimension, 1991.
Towards a Spiritual Humanism (with Jon Avery), 1991.
Seers and Sages (with David Bowen), 1991.
Alone to Alone : From Awareness to Vision, 1991.
Contemplation of Essence (Plotinus in Urdu), 1992.
Solomon’s Rings – Biography of a Sufi Master, 1997.
The Upanishads (an abridged translation to Urdu), 2007.
Essays by Prof. Syed Hasan Askari available on this blog:
Please browse the “Spiritual Human” blog for more writings by Prof. Syed Hasan Askari
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