Tag Archives: Religious Diversity

Syed Hasan Askari interviewed by Karen Armstrong on Mysticism 1984

Syed Hasan Askari (1932-2008), inter faith pioneer, responds to Karen Armstrong’s engaging interview (audio) from 1984 on the Sufi Mystical Experience,  Whirling Dervish dance inspired by the Sufi mystic Rumi, Zikr (Remembrance of God). The need for Religious diversity and much more.

The dialogue begins with the question, “What is the aim of a Sufi Mystic?”

Syed Hasan Askari one of the eight important Muslim thinkers Whirlin Kenneth Cragg’s “The Pen & the Faith” writes, “Few thinkers in contemporary Islam have so tellingly explored the issues of inter-religion or undertaken them as strong vocation. Hasan Askari holds a unique position in the search for unity of heart within the discrepancies, real or unreal, of religions in society.”

Selected quotes of Syed Hasan Askari from the above interview:

Zikr :“Remembering God in His attributes, in His Mercy and Power and Love.”

“We remember that God is the Greatest and thereby we deny everything else as great. And then we say that He is One, there is no other. And then we say the Praise and then we say He is Sublime, He is above all we say about Him.”  

“The ultimate goal of Zikr is to transcend Zikr itself.” 

“Doctrine is a conscious individual statement of one’s own form of belief about the ultimate.”  

“Dogma is an embodiment of a particular theological crisis and how it was resolved at a given time in the history of religious thought. There are creeds in Christianity and creeds in Islam which represent those crises in theological thought. But religious life is far ahead of dogmatic statement. For instance when I [Hasan Askari] stand in prayer I don’t say that here stands a “Muslim” with a particular belief statement on his lips…in ritual prayer we don’t enact the dogmatic what to speak of the mystical where the dogma is left behind.” 

“In very high levels of religious life a word becomes an eye and thereby we obtain a new sense, a new vision. But not with the physical eye, not with the eye of the body…..the rational mind is only analytical. It doesn’t give us a totality. One needs an intuition, a sense of partaking in the wholeness of being. Then perhaps we arrive at the level of true words which are also true visions.”

“Dogma is more a matter of institutional identity, continuity and solidarity in any religious life whatsoever. Whereas the mystic is concerned with the religious person, the individual. If man becomes alone before God then he becomes a truly religious person.”

“On one hand I feel, I know and I notice the unity of religious experience transcending image and symbol and dogma and institution and culture and language. And on the other I notice a variety, a diversity, a differential dynamics both between religions and one particular religion. And therefore I have to affirm the mystical value of diversity.”

“I would say that if we who say that we believe in God who is Sublime and Infinite and Transcendental and Almighty…how could that God be equated with one form of one religious belief?”

“Every man, every woman is potentially a mystic. It is more a matter of moving from a state of sleep to a state of awakening.”

“There is a world religion, namely, the Mystical.”

“I made a simple discovery some twenty years ago [1960s] in India that my religion was one among many. And then my journey began and now I feel at home in a Church or a Synagogue or a Mosque. A man of God should feel at home wherever one is. I should also say that a man of God is never alone. The invisible Companion, the invisible Friend is always there.”

 (apologies for the sound quality however it is hoped you will still find the conversation deeply interesting)

Why do we have more than one religion on our planet?

Extract of speech by Professor Hasan Askari, delivered in 1995, (full speech transcript on above page, Spiritual Humanism)

“It was in mid-sixties that I made a simple discovery which was infact quite obvious. Namely, that my religion was one among many in the sub-continent. I had a choice to go to Pakistan, to go to Canada to go to Great Britain but I didn’t. I decided religiously to remain within India. Within a multi-religious society. I decided to come home as a muslim in a society which was not predominantly muslim. I took the challenge of religious diversity quite seriously. For me personally it was not a political challenge, personally it was not an economic challenge because I was a lecturer by 1956. And family wise it was not a challenge. Historically, collectively it was a challenge. But for me the challenge was spiritual. The challenge was religious. For me the challenge was basically theological. I asked myself then and later in 70s, throughout in my consultations in Middle East and Europe; Why? Why we have more than one religion on our planet? Why?  

Well one sociological reason was, that was always given, that people were scattered. They didn’t have any communication so religious traditions and cultures sprang up spontaneously across the world depending on conditions both economic, moral and psychological. But that explanation to me was only socio-historic. I had discovered the limits so social science. I was moving towards philosophy and meta-physics.

I asked my self this question: Why? Why more than one religion? In other words I was asking for a theology of world religions. I was asking for a global understanding of religious diversity. Because the diversity was there staring into my eyes. It was there un-mistakably present. And therefore, that was the first stage of my journey; to ask a theological question about more than one religion. It was Brumana consultation in 1972 in Beirut the biggest Christian – Muslim consultation of the century, that in my paper I made it absolutely clear that perhaps, perhaps we need more than one religion. 

How could one dare to equate the Almighty Unity and Transcendence and Mystery with the form of one faith and practice? If we do so then that one religion becomes a god. And it is a blasphemy. As God’s Transcendence is ineffable, as His Might and Power is infinite, as His Attributes are countless and therefore, there should be as many forms of praising Him, worshipping Him, adoring Him, showing love and devotion to Him. And therefore I came home in a multi religious world. As a muslim it was easy for me to arrive at this position because the Quran is the first scripture in the world which started an inter-religious dialogue. It accepted the reality of revelation being given to all communities across the world. The Quran gave me the first clue to understand the theological enigma of more than one religion. “

Dedication: Professor Syed Hasan Askari (1932-2008)

SpiritualHuman blog is dedicated to the work and vision of Professor Syed Hasan Askari (1932-2008) who figures as one of the eight important Muslim thinkers in Kenneth Cragg’s The Pen and the Faith and is also acknowledged in the West as an uncompromising advocate for inter-religious spirituality. The blog was created and is maintained by Musa Askari. Professor Askari has lectured and taught at several universities in India, Lebanon, Germany, Holland, Britain and the United States. Hasan Askari has been one of the Muslim respondents to the Christian initiative to Dialogue and figures extensively in the study, “Striving Together in the Way of God: Muslim Participation in Christian-Muslim Dialogue”(1987) by Dr Charles A Kimball.

Hasan Askari’s works include The Experience of Religious Diversity – co edited with Professor John Hick, Spiritual Quest – An Inter Religious Dimension and Towards a Spiritual Humanism – A Muslim Humanist Dialogue (with Jon Avery), Alone to Alone : From Awareness to Vision, Seers & Sages (co-edited with David Bowen), Solomons Ring : The Life and Teachings of a Sufi Master, Inter-Religion to name but a few.

In the foreword to Spiritual Quest, Professor Jane I Smith (Harvard Divinity School – Senior Lecturer in Divinity and Associate Dean for Faculty and Academic Affairs) writes, “This is the deeper dimension of interfaith conversation to which Hasan Askari call(s) persons of religious sensitivity, a dialogue that leads not simply to a new epistemology but to what he would call a new ontology. A long time partner in dialogue sessions sponsored through the World Council of Churches and other agencies, Askari has been a courageous and sometimes lone voice urging that conversation move to levels at which this kind of transformation indeed can take place. Those who have known him through the years find it no surprise that the noted interpreter of Islam, Anglican Bishop Kenneth Cragg, has acknowledged Hasan Askari as one of the eight prominent Muslim thinkers of this century(20th) in The Pen and the Faith. A philosopher, a mystic, an historian and a social scientist, Askari pleads with religious persons everywhere to transcend the limitations we have placed on ourselves and to move together to new levels of understanding.”

In the aforementioned study Dr. Charles Kimball writes, “Hasan Askari is among the most active and visible Muslims engaged in interreligious dialogue. Since 1970, he has participated in numerous international and local dialogue meetings and lectured widely on various dimensions of what he terms “inter-religion”…His prominence in the field of Christian-Muslim encounter is noted by Kenneth Cragg, a pioneer and acknowledged authority in the area of Christian-Muslim relations:

“Few thinkers in contemporary Islam have so tellingly explored the issues of inter-religion or undertaken them as strong vocation. Hasan Askari holds a unique position in the search for unity of heart within the discrepancies, real or unreal, of religions in society.”

Dr Kimball continues, “Hasan Askari is a provocative and engaging person, a thoughtful scholar and sometimes an enigmatic mystic.”

Professor Askari has taught at several universities including, Osmania, Aligarth, Beirut, Amsterdam, Birmingham (UK) and has been a visiting professor at the universities of Antwerp and Denver. He was also the Louise Iliff Visiting Professor at the Iliff School of Theology in Denver.

Professor Askari’s international reputation rests on his vast experience as both consultant and participant at several international conferences and seminars on inter-religious dialogue: Ajoultoon 1970, Broummana 1972, Colombo 1974, London 1974, Bellagio 1976, Freiburg 1976, Beirut 1977, Hamburg 1982, Hanover 1984, The Hague 1985, Hartford 1982, Philadelphia 1986, Amsterdam 1990.

Professor Askari has been the first Muslim to address the Conference of European Bishops (Vienna 1985), and the International Council of Jews and Christians (Salamanca 1986). He has also given special lectures at several universities – Tehran, Frankfurt, Heidelberg, Nainz, Gottinghem, Rome, Utrecht, Leiden, Aberdeen, Oxford, Cambridge, Harvard, Uppsala and Stockholm.

Committed to co-presence and dialogue between diverse forms of spirituality, Professor Askari emphasises the urgent need to revive the discourse on soul and promoting Spiritual Humanism as an alternative ideology.

Books by Prof Syed Hasan Askari:

Selections from The Orations of Imam Ali ibn Talib, Hyderabad, 1965 (Urdu).

Foundations of Applied Sociology, Allahbad, 1968.

Inter-Religion, Aligarh, 1977.

Society and State in Islam, Delhi, 1977.

Reflections of the Awakened, Cambridge 1984.

The Experience of Religious Diversity (Co-Editor with John Hick), 1984.

Spiritual Quest: An Inter-Religious Dimension, 1991.

Towards a Spiritual Humanism (with Jon Avery), 1991.

Seers and Sages (with David Bowen), 1991.

Alone to Alone : From Awareness to Vision, 1991.

Contemplation of Essence (Plotinus in Urdu), 1992.

Solomon’s Rings – Biography of a Sufi Master, 1997.

The Upanishads (an abridged translation to Urdu), 2007.

Essays by Prof. Syed Hasan Askari available on this blog:

Religion and State, 1991

The Qur’anic Conception of Apostleship, 1991

The Real Presence of Jesus in Islam, 2005

Please browse the “Spiritual Human” blog for more writings by Prof. Syed Hasan Askari

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